Cairo or Luxor is a choice that many a traveler will face when they come to plan that once-in-a-lifetime jaunt to the historic land of the pharaohs. Our first hunch would be to say to do both if you can. Each town is riddled with amazing sites and oozes culture from its traffic-clogged streets. But, if hitting the two isn’t possible, then read on…
This guide will weigh up all the differences between Cairo and Luxor to help you pick the place that’s right for you and your travel crew this year. It will run through all the ins and outs of the ease of getting to both destinations, the hotels that are on offer, and the historical sights that you’ll see when you arrive.
One word of warning: This is no easy choice. Cairo is the electrifying hub of modern Egypt. It’s a sprawling megacity with bazaars and UNESCO sites. Luxor is all about the ancient world but also flaunts a lively modern core and fantastic Nile-side hotels. Umm…are you sure it’s not possible to do both?
Cairo or Luxor for ease of travel?
You only really need to take a look where Luxor is to see that it’s probably going to be a little harder to reach than Cairo. Deep in the heart of central Egypt some 400 miles from where the Nile meets the Med, it’s pretty distant from all of the major cities in the country. Thankfully, it does have its own airport: Luxor International Airport. Flights go directly there from Milan, Istanbul, and Zurich, along with a few hub destinations in the Middle East – Dubai, Doha. More adventurous travelers can take the train from Cairo. It takes about 10 hours and skirts the lush Nile Valley from top to bottom.
Cairo hosts the largest airport in the country. Cue Cairo International (CAI). Upwards of 14 million people pass through its terminals every year, many fresh off flights coming in from a diverse range of destinations – think Vienna and Washington DC, Geneva and Doha, Khartoum and Chengdu to name just a couple. The upshot? Cairo should be WAY easier to reach by air than Luxor. So, it wins this category hands down.
Cairo or Luxor for things to do?
Number one on the to-do list in Cairo simply HAS to be a tour of the great pyramids. Technically, they’re not in Cairo itself but in neighboring Giza, just over 12km south of the city proper. A day or even three can be spent seeing the great structures there, which we think is best backed up with a trip to the incredible Egyptian Museum (there’s even a mummified monkey in there!). You should also tour the atmospheric streets of Old Cairo, see the mummies at the National Museum of Egyptian Civilizations, and hit the bustling bazaar of Khan el-Khalili.
Luxor is a ticket to the richest history sites in Egypt. Yep, just when you thought the pyramids couldn’t be topped, this one offers up the seemingly endless sprawl of the Valley of the Kings (situated just over the Nile to the west of the modern town) and the striking peristyles of the mighty Temple of Karnak (one of the most important temples of the New Kingdom era). After all that, you can ride hot air balloons above the desert or board traditional felucca boats to islands in the Nile.
Winner: Luxor – better history and more memorable experiences.
Cairo or Luxor for outdoors adventure?
Cairo is the biggest city in Egypt and one of the biggest in the whole of Africa. That should offer just a clue that it’s not really the place for folks on the hunt for outdoors adventure. You can escape town. Quad biking beneath the pyramids and day outings to the Siwa Oasis are among the top draws, and there’s also the chance to do overnight desert safaris that take you out into the hinterland for a night under the stars.
Luxor is also a city but it’s MUCH smaller than Cairo. That makes it easier to break away from the bazaars to taste the wilder side of the country. Popular draws for adventurers here include camel rides in the desert at sunset or hiking routes that circle the historical wonders of the Valley of the Kings. You can also sail the Nile to explore the islets and the farms that surround the town, or even embark on a longer Nile cruise all the way to the amazing Aswan Dam.
Cairo or Luxor for history?
The history is such a big part of a trip to Egypt for most travelers that we think it deserves a section of its own here. There’s one clear winner for us, too: Luxor. Often hailed as an open-air museum collection, the place is brimming with relics of the country’s iconic pharaonic past. You can’t move for temples and tombs. The best of them await at the 4,000-year-old Temple of Karnak and the vast Theban Necropolis, which includes the legendary burial place of one Tutankhamun. That’s also just scratching the surface.
That’s not to say Cairo has no history. We’ve already mentioned how the UNESCO-tagged Giza Pyramids should be top of the to-do list. They are probably better known than the sites of Luxor and also date back over four millennia. They’re part of a complex that hosts famous landmarks like the ancient Sphinx and the Great Pyramid. Cairo also varies the history a little with immersive Coptic Christian churches and the 1,000-year-old Al-Azhar Mosque.
Winner: Luxor wins here but history lovers have a glut to get through in Cairo, too.
Cairo or Luxor for food?
The food in Egypt is a real mishmash for the senses. Some dishes bring that twist of spice and heat you get in East Asia. Others have the earthiness of Moroccan and Saharan food. If this is one of the main reasons you’re tempted by the land of the pyramids, then we think Cairo is the place to be.
Cue the bazaars of Muhammad Ali Street and the blocks around the famous Khan El Khalili market. They are filled with shops selling citrus fruits and dates, flat breads, and baklava. Cairo also has by far the largest array of Western-style eateries in the country outside of resorts like Sharm.
Luxor doesn’t have a shortage of places to eat. It’s just that there’s not the same overload of tempting marketplaces as in the Egyptian capital. The flavors here showcase the southern kitchen, which means freshwater fish from the Nile and rustic nomad food from the desert – things like rabbit stew with aish baladi flatbreads. The top eateries in town include the atmospheric As Sahaby Lane and the more upscale 1886 Restaurant.
Cairo Or Luxor for hotels?
As the booming capital of the country, Cairo gathers together almost nine times the number of accommodation choices as the historic Nile city of Luxor. That means you have options of all shapes and sizes, styles and budgets. The bulk of travelers will look to stay near the Pyramids in Giza, on the affluent island of Zamalek, or in the lively modern incarnation of the town in New Cairo. Some of the best establishments are:
- Number One Pyramids Hotel ($) – This very-wallet-friendly option on the last row of development in Giza is great for seeing the pyramids.
- Marriott Mena House ($$$) – Be pampered amid the palm-sprouting gardens of this upscale hotel near the pyramids.
- Maran Residence ($$-$$$) – A sumptuous set of suites that’s plonked in the midst of happening New Cairo.
What Luxor manages to do better here is Nile-view hotels and hotels at the luxurious end of the spectrum. Yep, if you’re after a romantic stay that offers visions of the wild Egyptian mountains and deserts in the distance, along with views of the country’s iconic ancient archaeology sites from the pool, this is the place to be. The best include:
- Djorff Palace ($$$) – Built like one of India’s mighty Mughal treasures, this vast palace hotel is one of the most sought-after in Luxor.
- Nefertiti Hotel Luxor ($$-$$$) – Shady rooms with an arabesque twist offer visions of the Nile River and access to a great rooftop terrace.
- Nile Carnival Cruise ($$$) – Check off the sights of Aswan and Luxor by hopping aboard this classy cruise down the Nile. Prices include a double room and access to the deck pools.
Cairo or Luxor for price?
Cairo’s greater number of hotels means that there’s better competition on the accommodation front, something that helps to keep rates pretty low throughout the whole season. As such, the average cost of a four-star hotel here is around the $39 mark, compared to something more akin to $56 per night in Luxor. The difference is especially noticeable when you plump for five-star lodgings, which can cost under $100 a night in the capital but usually sell for over $250 in the historic Nile city further south.
We’d also say that Cairo has the better rates when it comes to food, mainly because there are way more opportunities to sample the local cuisine in more causal street bazaars. Oh, and Cairo will almost certainly be cheaper to get to. That’s because it’s the main hub of the country and the place where the bulk of the direct flights arrive at.
Cairo or Luxor for general vibe?
Cairo is the biggest city in the country. Over 21 million people strong (when you look at the overall metro center), it’s also among the largest cities in the whole of Africa and the world. It spreads over countless districts and neighborhoods at the bottom end of the Nile Delta to cover everything from ancient bazaar areas to sleek modern areas packed with skyscrapers and cool cafes. At times, it can be positively overwhelming, what with all the traffic and the business. You can mitigate that a little by staying somewhere a touch quieter and leafier – Zamalek, Maadi. But be under no illusions that a visit to Cairo is a visit to a booming, breathing, seething, sprawling, megalopolis.
Luxor is also a built-up area. It’s been that way for over three millennium. There are two sides to it: The modern and the ancient. The vast majority of people come to explore the latter, which means days and days of wandering between towering temples and half-ruined relics. The upshot? Your explorations in Luxor aren’t likely to be quite as exhausting and in your face. The new side of town is a touch lively, but it’s also A LOT smaller than Cairo, with big hotels, parks, and a pleasant location on the side of the Nile. The downside is that Luxor can sometimes feel a touch touristy on account of the fact that most folks coming here are coming solely for the sights.
Winner: Draw – Cairo is a big, booming city, while Luxor is a mid-sized ancient town.
Cairo or Luxor for safety?
Generally speaking, both of these towns are considered safe destinations to visit. Yes, Egypt has certainly had its fair share of political upheavals in recent years. That’s manifested in a terror attacks and shutdowns, which have disproportionately affected the capital – there were shootings in the streets of Cairo as recently as 2019. However, the UK Foreign Office (FCO) and the US State Department don’t currently warn against all travel here. They simply caution travelers on the risks and suggest reconsidering all but essential travel.
Overall, Luxor is likely to be the safer of the two destinations. It’s smaller and further away from the main high-risk areas of the country that straddle the Libya-Egypt border and the top of the Sinai Peninsula around the Suez Canal. In addition, it’s not the home of the Egyptian government, and so isn’t so frequently subject to mass protests and movements as the capital.
Winner: Luxor is probably the safer of the two towns.
Cairo or Luxor – our conclusion
We’ve said it before, but we’ll say it again: Do both these Egyptian towns if you can. Each has amazing historical treasures (Cairo, the pyramids; Luxor, the Valley of the Kings). Both offer buzzy markets and bazaars filled with spices and whatnot. Both are great bases for learning about the ancient times of the pharaohs. However, Luxor probably just about trumps the capital when it comes to history and culture, while Cairo is easier to get to and better for those after an action-packed city break in the real metropolis.
Can I travel to both Luxor and Cairo?
You can and we actually think it’s a great idea, promising to get two of the main highlights of the country into your trip. You can do this by flying (there are roughly four direct flights with Egypt Air each day between the two towns) or taking one of the famous Nile Cruises, which will be slower but reveal all the stunning wonders of central Egypt.
What’s the best time to visit Egypt?
Most people say that the European winter is the top time to visit Egypt. It’s altogether cooler in the months between October and March, which is especially important if you’re heading over to explore the vast ancient history sights of Cairo and Luxor – places without too much in the way of shade that will require a lot of walking.